A static web site generator is an application that takes plain text files and compiles them to HTML files. — Awesome Static Web Site Generators

I made two of them myself:

Clinklog, a static site generator optimized for linklogs and microblogs
Statickle, a static site generator in a Tcl script: download, unpack, run!

They were inspired by others I used in the past:

BashBlog, A single Bash script to create blogs.
Pelican, a static site generator that requires no database or server-side logic

But static site generators suffer from a bunch of issues:

While technically the same thing, AntiWiki addresses all these points.